Kidney Stones - Why? How? What to do?




How kidney stone happens?

When urinary tract is saturated with salts, they precipitate and start growing. Different kidney stones have different salts.

What are the Causes of Kidney Stones?

Causes of Kidney Stones can be genetic or family history of stones, lifestyle, diet, obesity, diabetes, medicines for illness, lack of water intake, climate related (more in summer), excessive workout without hydrating.

What are the age groups who can get kidney stones?

Kidney stones in patients from one year old to upto 96 yrs old patients have been operated by our Urologist Dr. Griffin. Kidney stones spares no age, nor gender.

What are the symptoms of kidney stones?

Symptoms of kidney stones occur when stone moves from kidney location, down the ureter, causing obstruction to urine flow and hydronephrosis. Stone movement can also create injury and cause bleeding. So pain in the flank, loin pain, blood in urine, fever are symptoms.

What is the treatment for Kidney Stone?

Kidney stone treatment depends on size of kidney stone. Small stones which are asymptomatic and inside kidneys can be observed, while some stones can be treated with medicines if small. When kidney stones become symptomatic with pain, bleeding, fever, etc. or when the stone block starts affecting the kidney causing compression and loss of kidney function, kidney infection or even a bursting of the pelvis of the kidney, when such situations occur, the kidney stone needs to be removed. So, whether the stone can be removed with medicines or surgery has to be decided by the Urologist. Do not self medicate without knowing the stage or complications of your particular case.

Drinking too much water after the stone has started blocking, in order to flush it out is a dangerous option without medical guidance as it can cause reverse pressure and damage to the kidneys, which becomes a serious complication.

What are Surgical Treatments for Kidney Stones?

Kidney stone surgery depends on the location of stone, the size of the stone as well as the size, shape and position of the kidney. Solitary Kidney, or kidneys which are not of regular anatomy, like horsehoe kidney, anomalies of kidney, pelvis and ureter.

Kidney stone surgery types include:

· PCNL – Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy - Supine PCNL

· Ultra mini PCNL and Mini PCNL

· SBES - Simultaneous Bilateral Endoscopic Stone Surgery ( Kidney Stones removed from both kidney in a single stage operation - avoiding multiple operations for multipe stones.

· RIRS – Retrograde intrarenal Stone Surgery with Laser Stone Removal

· Open Kidney Stone surgeries are avoided mostly.

· Keyhole surgery or endoscopic kidney surgery is our routine, even with large staghorn stones, even if solitary or abnormal kidneys.

When Stone is in the Ureter, surgery options are:

· Flexible URS – Ureterorenoscopy, followed by Laser Stone Removal

· URS with Stone Basketing

· DJ or Double J stenting to help the fine stones to pass through till the stones are out of the urinary system

Bladder Stone Surgeries:

· Flexible Cystoscopy and Removal

· Laparoscopic Surgery

· Minimal Invasive Stone Surgery

How to Prevent Kidney Stone Formation?

A healthy lifestyle with the right kind of diet, hydration, workout, taking care of other illness like diabetes, avoiding Pain killer abuse, etc will be the general measures to prevent. To know specifically, after a kidney stone removal is done, the stone is sent for analysis. Once the type of stone is analysed, diet specific to that kind of stone is decided, so prevention is made more effective.


Stones can range from Microliths of a few mm upto Complex Staghorns of size upto Maximum Stone Size removed is 450 mm size (above pic).


This is just a small introduction to kidney health.

Ray and Rio’s Speciality Clinic is one of the Best Clinics in Chennai for Kidney Stones. Surgeries are done in Specialised Hospitals with expert patient care. To know more about kidney stone surgery cost, or what to do if you have a kidney stone, reach out to our Urology Clinic in Chennai situated both in Neelanakarai and Egmore , by calling 7338999199 or 9840519139. We will need all your old treatment files, details when you come for consultation with Our Kidney Stone Specialist, Dr. Griffin. Call us for queries and we will be happy to help you out.